Why freckles appear
Freckles are brown or light brown spots on the skin. They consist of clusters of skin cells containing the pigment melanin. Unlike moles, which are raised, freckles are flat. Freckles are neither painful nor harmful.
No one is born with freckles, even though they may be genetic. They are caused by sunlight. If you have freckles and want to get rid of them, there are seven ways to consider them.
Sunscreens do not get rid of existing freckles, but they do help prevent new ones. You should wear sunscreen all year round, even when it is cloudy.
The American Academy of Dermatology offers these tips:
Sunscreen products should have an SPF of 30 or higher.
Apply sunscreen to bare skin at least 15 minutes before going outside.
Re-apply sunscreen every two hours and immediately after swimming or excessive sweating.
2- Laser treatment
Laser treatment uses pulses of focused, intensive light to specifically treat damaged areas of skin. There are different types of lasers. According to a study from 2015, the Q-switched Nd YAG laser 1064 is effective for the treatment of freckles. The study results showed that treatment with this laser brightened more than 50 percent of freckles in 62 percent of the participants.
The laser treatment is generally safe. The risk of scarring is low. However, other side effects may occur, including
Changes in skin colour
If you have had oral herpes in the past, you may need to take an antiviral medication before you can undergo laser treatment. This is because the laser can stimulate a flare of herpes around your mouth.
Your doctor may prescribe other medicines or creams before the procedure. Your doctor may also recommend that you avoid certain medications or products before the procedure. Tell your doctor about any medications or creams you use.
It may take up to two weeks to recover from laser treatment. Usually several sessions are required to achieve the desired results.
Cryosurgery uses extreme cold in the form of liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy abnormal skin cells. Cryosurgery is generally safe and requires no anesthesia and only a short recovery time. Some possible side effects are hypopigmentation, bleeding and blistering. Cryosurgery rarely causes scarring.
4-Topical fading cream
Fading cream, also called bleaching cream, is available both over the counter and over the counter. Many fading creams contain hydroquinone, an ingredient designed to suppress melanin production and lighten darker skin areas.
This can be caused by topical hydroquinone creams:
In 1982, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considered bleaching products containing up to 2 percent hydroquinone to be generally safe and effective. In 2006, a new EvidenceTrusted Source pointed out that hydroquinone can cause cancer in rats and can lead to darkening and disfigurement of the skin. This prompted the FDA to nominate hydroquinone for further studies under the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Nevertheless, the FDA-recommended hydroquinone products will remain on the market until the NTP’s research is completed.
5- Topical retinoid cream
Retinoid cream is a vitamin A compound. It is used to improve sun-damaged skin and lighten freckles. According to a 2014 “Trusted Source” magazine, retinoids may provide sun protection by absorbing ultraviolet B radiation. This can help prevent the formation of new freckles.
Retinoid creams are available with or without a prescription. Common side effects are:
6- Chemical peel
A chemical peel uses a chemical solution to peel and remove damaged skin. To remove freckles, a moderate skin peeling containing glycolic acid or trichloroacetic acid penetrates the middle layers of the skin. Once damaged skin is removed, new skin is formed.
Chemical peels can cause temporary damage:
According to the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, moderate skin peels take up to two weeks to heal. You must soak your skin daily and apply a topical ointment. You must also take a prescription antiviral for up to two weeks and avoid the sun until your skin has healed.
7- Natural remedies
there are several natural remedies that people swear by to get rid of freckles. None of them are scientifically proven. However, most of the remedies are unlikely to cause harm if used in moderation.
These natural remedies include:
Lemon juice: Apply lemon juice directly to your skin with a cotton ball and then wash it off. It is believed that lemon juice lightens the skin.
Honey: Combine honey with salt or sugar to make a scrub. Honey can help lighten pigmentation.
Buttermilk: Apply buttermilk directly to your skin. You should leave it on for 10 minutes before rinsing with warm water. You can also make a mask by combining buttermilk with oatmeal. Buttermilk contains lactic acid, which may help lighten your freckles.
Sour cream: Apply sour cream directly to your skin and wash it off after a few minutes. Like buttermilk, sour cream contains lactic acid.
Yoghurt: Apply yoghurt directly to your skin and leave for a few minutes. Yoghurt also contains lactic acid.
Onion: Rub the onion over your skin and then rinse the skin with warm water. The onion can act as an exfoliator and can help to lighten spots.
If you feel irritation, stop using the product.
What causes freckles
Your skin contains cells called melanocytes that produce the pigment melanin. Melanin helps to protect your skin from the ultraviolet rays of the sun. Exposure to the sun encourages the melanocytes to produce more melanin. Freckles are an accumulation of melanin on the outer layer of your skin.
Most people with a large number of freckles have fair skin, although anyone can get them. Although fair-skinned people usually produce less melanin than people with darker skin, their melanocytes produce more melanin during sun exposure.
Freckles can disappear by themselves
Some freckles are there for the long term. Others are most pronounced in summer due to increased sunlight, but fade in winter or by avoiding direct sunlight. Freckles, which are hereditary, can decrease with age. Freckles, which are caused by sun damage, tend to increase with age.
When to consult a doctor
Freckles are not carcinogenic, but they can be confused with skin cancer. Excessive sun exposure is a risk factor for both freckles and melanoma. Melanomas are more common in people with light skin or freckles than in people with dark skin.
If you notice changes in the size, color, or shape of a freckle, consult your doctor or dermatologist. They will be able to determine if this is a cause for concern.
How to Get Rid of Dark Spots on the Face
From freckles and age spots to scarring, many things can make your complexion look uneven. Although harmless, uneven skin can cause some people to try different skin lightening products.
While there are many skin lightening products and solutions on the market, they are not all the same and some may even be dangerous. If you know what to look out for, you can choose a safe option if you want a more even complexion.
Hyperpigmentation or “dark spots” can be caused by acne scars, excessive sun exposure or hormonal changes, according to David E. Bank, MD, of New York Presbyterian Hospital. “There are a variety of creams and serums that patients can use to lighten, brighten and diminish dark areas over time,” said David E. Bank, MD, of New York-Presbyterian Hospital.
Each of these treatment options carries some risks. Read on to find out which option is best for you.
Hydroquinone creams and serums
Perhaps the most popular solution for selective skin lightening are topical solutions containing hydroquinone.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trusted source limits the concentration of this active ingredient to 2 percent in over-the-counter products and 3 to 4 percent in prescription products. It is the only ingredient that the FDA classifies as a “bleach”.
Although it is considered safe for use in cosmetic products, the concentration of hydroquinone is limited because it poses greater risks at higher concentrations. In fact, it is not legal for use at all in South Africa. It is also classified as “probably toxic or harmful” in Canada.
The environmental working group says there is strong evidence that the ingredient is a “toxic to human skin” and also an allergen. There are also concerns that this ingredient may cause cancer, but the available research – trusted source – is limited.
It is recommended that people use products containing hydroquinone only for short periods of time, if at all. If you experience irritation, unusual darkening of the skin or other side effects, you should stop using the product immediately.
Products like Retin-A and Renova are an alternative solution. They contain ingredients such as alpha hydroxy acid and retinoic acid that increase cell turnover, accelerate exfoliation and promote new, healthy skin growth.
These ingredients can significantly dry out and make the skin more sensitive to sunlight. If you choose to use these solutions, you should be aware that it may take several months before they take effect. Make sure you wear sunscreen every day.
Laser treatments and peels
A more invasive option for lightening dark spots is laser treatment. It works by targeting dark spots with concentrated light energy and removing the skin layer by layer. Essentially, you burn off the dark skin layers immediately.
There are several different types of laser treatment. This solution works faster than topical products. But of course there are also risks.
You can gain experience with skin whitening by laser:
Changes in skin texture
Peelings and peeling products remove dead skin cells or the top layer of skin. When this layer is removed, the underlying skin appears healthier and more evenly toned. But they also carry risks, such as skin irritation.
You can find over-the-counter products that claim skin whitening and “corrective” abilities through natural ingredients. According to Dr. Bank, the common compounds in these products include
Although they carry fewer risks than the options listed above, your skin could be sensitive or allergic to almost anything – even “natural” products.
Preventing dark spots
For most people, the effects of skin whitening products are minimal compared to the risks. Avoiding skin damage is usually the best solution. By protecting your skin even after pimples appear, you prevent them from getting worse.
“Strict sun protection is the key to fading dark spots,” says Dr. Bank. “The use of products with blocking ingredients such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide is crucial, otherwise the stains may reappear even after removal”.
A visit to a dermatologist will probably lead you to the options with the best prospects and the least risks.